sudo apt-get install gcc-avr avr-libc
Download newest release from http://arduino.cc/en/Main/Software and extract it to a convenient location.
Double clicking on the arduino file should start the program.
sudo usermod -aG dialout <myuser>
BEWARE: Serial.println in a loop can cause entire Java Arduino program to lock up because it locks up the serial ports, which are scanned every time you click the tools menu (upload a different sketch using windows or mac to fix the problem)